How to Escape “Error Snowballs” and Improve Your Pickleball Technique

You’ll often hear that the most important piece of advice in pickleball is avoiding “unforced errors.” There are many training techniques that center around this concept such as “percentage pickleball,” where one uses shots and tactics which are statistically more reliable rather than attempting risky maneuvers that could just as easily go in the other team’s favor. The idea is to keep the ball in play and let your opponents make the mistakes.

This is a simple concept to grasp, but when you try to break it down, it can be harder to determine where, exactly, your original mistake was made. Learning how and why you made a mistake can go a long way towards improving your game and making it more consistent in the future. Some will point to the final moments of play as the main area for analysis, but in fact, you may need to look even earlier to find out what went wrong.

This idea is elegantly shown in video from Tony of In2Pickle. In it, one of the players seemingly loses a point because her paddle wasn’t in a high, ready position. But Tony expresses that the team made several mistakes much earlier than that, which ended up making the final exchange more difficult to defend and placed them in a disadvantageous position.

Watch this concise and helpful video for a full breakdown. To sum up: The main problem starts with Kathie (in the back left side of the court) making a short return serve. This is due to her standing too close to the baseline and having to move back to make the return, resulting in less power in the ball.

This then snowballs into a series of advantages for the opposing team. The offense steps closer to the kitchen and gains more court coverage, while Kathie is still stuck in no man’s land for her next volley. She is forced to hit the ball in an upward arc, which allows her opponent to poach it and further reduce the amount of time Kathie has to get in position.

If you can work out small technical errors in your game like this, then there are much fewer opportunities for the other team to seize an opening. That’s why learning and utilizing basic good practices is so important, including something as simple as knowing where to stand during a serve to maximize your return.

Have you ever taken the opportunity to analyze your games and discover what simple good practices you might be overlooking? Try it, and have a more seasoned player help out if possible! You might be surprised by what you find and how little changes can make big improvements in your game.

Meet The Pros – Leigh Waters

Meet The Pros – Leigh Waters

 Catherine Parenteau and Leigh Waters, Bronze

USAPA Margaritaville Nationals, Catherine Parenteau and Leigh Waters, Bronze

Can you list for us your major wins so we can correctly introduce you to our readers?

2019 Minto US Open Mixed Doubles Age with Dave Weinbach – GOLD
2019 Tournament of Champions, Women’s Doubles Open Pro with Anna Leigh Waters – GOLD
2019 Chicago Pickleball Open, Mixed Pro Doubles with Dave Weinbach – SILVER
Women’s PRO Doubles with Anna Leigh Waters – SILVER
2018 USAPA Margaritaville Nationals, Women’s Skill/Age Doubles with Catherine Parenteau – GOLD
2018 Texas Open – Women’s Open Doubles with Anna Leigh Waters – SILVER
Women’s Singles – GOLD

Leigh and Anna Leigh Texas Open

Texas Open Leigh and Anna Leigh Waters, Silver; Simone Jardim and Lucy Kovalova, Gold; Catherine Parenteau  and Corrine Carr, Bronze

What paddle do you play with and why?

I use the Paddletek Element because it has good pop while being able to maintain control, plus the head of the paddle is a bit smaller so it’s not overly cumbersome.

What is your pickleball story? How were you introduced to pickleball?

My father introduced us to pickleball when we evacuated Florida from Hurricane Irma last year. We went to Pennsylvania and played for two weeks straight. We haven’t stopped since!

What is your preference – playing indoors or outdoors?

Outdoors. I prefer playing on a tennis court surface with a Dura Fast 40.

Do you like singles or doubles better? Why?

I definitely prefer doubles. I enjoy having a partner next to me. Singles is such a physical game and it’s just you out there battling it out. It reminds me too much of my tennis days and I find dubs to be much more fun and social.

Mom and Daughter

Leigh and Anna Leigh Waters Pickleball Pros

What is your favorite place to play? Why?

I love to play in South Florida with all my pickleball friends. We have multiple facilities where we play and I have the most fun when I’m with them.

What is your secret sauce? Any tips for players?

I love mixing in power shots from the kitchen. Throwing in a fast-paced shot keeps your opponent honest and wondering when you might surprise them.

What is your day job?

I’m an attorney.

How many hours a week do you play? How do you make time to play?

I play 6-8 hours a week. I make time by taking my daughter with me. That way we are not missing family time and we get to practice together. Some nights I practice while my daughter has soccer practice. Most important to me is being with her and my family, so I always time practices around Anna Leigh’s busy schedule.

Any lucky rituals before a big tournament?

Not really. I’m not a superstitious person. A good meal is super important, and I like to get to the facility a day or two early to practice.

Do you have any pickleball goals you would like to share?

Personally I just want to have fun and play high-level pickleball and do this with my daughter. Obviously, everyone has goals of winning, but I think it’s something really special to be able to travel the country playing pickleball with Anna Leigh and making memories that will last a lifetime. She is always my first priority, and I just want to teach her to be a good person on and off the court. This journey wouldn’t be half as good if she wasn’t a part of it.

The New Generation of Paddletek

Since 2010, Paddletek has been one of pickleball’s industry leaders thanks to their breakthrough product innovation, high quality designs, versatile offerings and lifetime performance guarantee. You can find Paddletek in the hands of pro players in tournaments around the world.

As the sport has grown, so have they, and the company has now unveiled their new era of innovation. Paddletek has completely rebranded their offerings which not only include visual changes but material upgrades to their incredible line.

Paddletek Pros

We had a chance to interview Noah Kaplan, Paddletek’s VP of Sales & Marketing, and he shared some of the reasoning behind this new look and lineup of Paddletek’s products:

“To us, it’s more than just creating a new logo or developing a new paddle. This is about creating a strong brand identity that aligns with our core mission and values and will ultimately give our consumers the confidence they need to take their game to the next level.”

A Fresh Look

To start, you’ll notice every paddle has received a complete visual overhaul. All of Paddletek’s equipment now looks more uniform with clean black backgrounds intersected by eye-catching neon colors. Their appearance feels sleek and modern, expressing dedication to the game but with an energetic edge.

Paddletek’s Product Lines

Before this launch of Paddletek’s new lineup, they offered over 15 different paddle models spread out over a large number of different sub-brands.  As the company exploded in growth since their initial introduction in 2010, they created paddles for every type of player need. After almost 10 years of product innovation, the company decided it was time to reset the product line in a way that helped make it easier for players to select the best paddle for their needs.

The result? Every Paddletek paddle is now sorted into three corresponding product lines that address these areas and then offer further variation.

Catherine Parenteau with the new Tempest Wave Pro

Catherine Parenteau with the Tempest Wave Pro

The Tempest series improves accuracy and provides better control. Noah says this series “utilizes a specialized graphite core to absorb more energy from the ball, giving players more control.” There are two offerings in this line, the Tempest Wave II, and the Tempest Wave Pro.

The Bantam series is made to support power and performance. Paddletek believes these paddles “allow the ball to keep more if its own energy during a return, giving the player more put away options.” This line includes both Standard and Pro models of the famous TS-5 and Bantam EX-L, plus the Bantam Sabre.

The Phoenix series is the most user-friendly for all levels and offers a balance between control and power. Noah feels that the Phoenix line “represents the ‘just right’ category, where [Paddletek] starts from a design perspective and uses adaptations of earlier models that changed the sport.”

How to Choose Which Model Is Right For You?

When it came to organizing their equipment, Paddletek knew players can find it difficult to determine which piece of gear matches up with their needs. To help accommodate this process they’ve rated their paddles in three different categories based on user feedback: control, power and forgiveness.

Control relates to “touch” and allows you to better manipulate ball placement.

Power refers to how much strength the paddle adds to your shots and makes it easier to drive balls with more speed.

Forgiveness is connected to a paddle’s sweet spot, meaning you don’t have to hit dead center on the face to get the ball over the net.

If you’d like to see a full table breaking down the paddles within each of these lines for quick comparison, visit our Paddletek product page.

Scott More with the Bantam Sabre Pro

Scott More with the Bantam Sabre Pro

Visionary Design

In addition to making their paddles more simple to categorize, Paddletek has continued to boost their products’ performance at top level play.

All Pro models include Smart Response Technology (SRT) in their 9/16″ cores which increase the consistency of the sweet spot by evenly distributing the energy from the ball.

Noah says they have “introduced TVC (torsional vibration control) in several paddles, which means the paddle is less likely to twist in the player’s hand when the ball strikes off center. Our vibration dampening technology also reduces vibration and adds comfort at impact when force enters the player’s hand, arm and elbow.”

Leigh Waters with the Phoenix Genesis

Leigh Waters with the Phoenix Genesis

New Product Offerings

Updated appearance of the Tempest Wave II

Updated appearance of the Tempest Wave II

One much-beloved paddle that has been entirely done is the Tempest Wave, now known as the Tempest Wave II. The previous core has been upgraded and it now includes the aforementioned TVC tech so that players experience less interruption to their game.

The Phoenix line is also an entirely new series of paddles from the company as opposed to the updated iterations of their classic models. The Phoenix paddles are perfectly balanced when it comes to power and control, making them a great option for players who don’t want to focus on a single attribute and instead have the flexibility to adapt their play style as needed.

The Phoenix G6 is the entry level selection in the line, having vibration dampening properties and a standard polymer core. The Phoenix Genesis Pro is the next step up with both vibration dampening and TVC tech in addition to a high grade poly core. And finally, the Phoenix Genesis Pro has all of the previous qualities as well as Smart Response Technology and Paddletek’s most advanced core.

Anna Leigh with the Bantam TS-5

Anna Leigh with the Bantam TS-5

The Paddletek You Know, Even Better

For players who have been long-time Paddletek fans, this is your opportunity to show off what you can really do with skills forged in the competition and excellent equipment. For newcomers who are just now discovering them, there’s no better time to take advantage of PickleballCentral’s test drive policy to find your perfect match in the Paddletek family worry-free.

Irina Tereschenko with the Bantam EX-L

Irina Tereschenko with the Bantam EX-L

Check out Paddletek’s updated table of products and find new ways to transform your game, just like Paddletek has transformed their offerings.

Dave Weinbach with the Tempest Wave Pro

Dave Weinbach with the Tempest Wave Pro

Meet The Pros – Kris Anderson

Meet The Pros – Kris Anderson

Kris Anderson action

2019 Texas Open, Kris Anderson and Dave Weinbach

Kris is a great competitor and a doubles master. She has played with the best and competes against the best. Enjoy!

Can you list for us your major wins so we can correctly introduce you to our readers?

2019 Texas Open, Senior (Sr) Mixed Open with Dave Weinbach – Gold
Sr Women’s Open with Lisa Naumu – Gold
2019 Tournament of Champions (ToC)  Senior Mixed Doubles Pro with Kevin Booth – Gold

Sr Women’s Doubles Pro with Lisa Naumu -Silver
2019 The Lakes Spring Fling, Women’s Doubles 50+ with Lisa Naumu – Gold
2019 US Open, Sr Open Mixed Pro with Scott Moore – Gold
Sr Open Women’s With Lisa Naumu – Silver
2018 USAPA Nationals,
50+ Women’s Doubles with Bonnie Williams – Gold
Sr. Open Mixed with Scott Moore – Gold
Sr. Open Women’s with Bonnie Williams – Silver
2018 ToC, Sr. Open Mixed with Kevin Booth – Gold
Sr Open Women’s with Bonnie Williams – Silver
2018 US Open, Sr. Open Mixed Doubles with Kevin Booth – Bronze
2017 USAPA Nationals, Sr Open Mixed with Kevin Booth – Gold
2016 USAPA Nationals, Sr. Open Mixed with Scott Moore – Gold
Sr Open Women’s with Mona Burnett – Silver
2016 US Open, 50+ Mixed with Mike Gates – Silver
Sr Open Mixed with Mike Gates – Gold
Sr Open Women’s with Tracy Worley – Bronze
2014 USAPA Nationals, Women’s 50+ with Tracy Worley – Gold

2019 US Open Sr. Mixed Pro Kris Anderson

2019 US Open Sr. Mixed Pro, Steve Kennedy and Lisa Naumu, Bronze, Kris Anderson and Scott Moore – Gold, Cammy MacGregor and Brian Staub, Silver

What paddle do you play with and why?

I just switched this week to the new Onix Evoke Premier Paddle. I love it. It has a great grip, nice texture and balance.

What is your pickleball story? How were you introduced to pickleball?

I was playing tennis one day and it started raining so someone said let’s go in the gym and try pickleball. I loved it immediately and couldn’t wait to play again.

What is your preference – playing indoors or outdoors?

Outdoors. We rarely play indoors in Southern California.

Courts at The Tennis Club at Newport Beach

Do you like singles or doubles better? Why? 

Doubles.

What is your favorite place to play? Why

The tennis club at Newport Beach. Great club and close to home.

What is your day job?

Being a mom.

How many hours a week do you play? How do you make time to play?

I’m blessed with an amazing husband and family who are totally supportive of each other and I have all the time I want to play.

Texas Open Sees 28 Junior Participants, Wyatt Stone Helps Youth Find Pickleball

The 2nd annual Texas Open was held September 12-15, where stalwart players braved the heat to test their skills at the Open Wagon Wheel Tennis Center in Coppell. Of the 747 participants that took part, 28 were juniors ranging from 7-18 years old.

These young players are a growing demographic which has only recently gained legislation needed within USAPA-recognized events to fully take part. While many picklers have expressed enthusiasm for the newer generation getting involved in the sport, the reality is that the journey toward full integration hasn’t been as cut and dry as grabbing a paddle and showing up.

Texas Open junior players with Lucy Kovalova and Matt Wright

Texas Open junior players with Lucy Kovalova and Matt Wright

We recently spoke with Ashley Stone, mother to the winner of the Lone Star Award (Wyatt Stone). She was willing to illuminate some of the challenges the juniors have faced and overcome in addition to describing their experience at the Open:

“My son Wyatt has played in 12 tournaments and taken 18 medals since January 2019. When he first started playing, we had to ask tournament directors to lower the minimum age to allow him to play. He even pre-qualified for the American State Games, but they wouldn’t let him join due to their minimum age restriction last January.

“I have been adding junior events to the USAPA Junior Facebook page and website for a few months. In a short period of time (Jan-Sept, 9 months) we have seen the minimum age lower to include junior players in about 90% of all tournaments nationwide, excluding the senior tournaments. Pickleballtournaments.com just added a “junior” search feature to their toolbar this month as well. This is a huge milestone for the junior movement!

Texas Open juniors with Anna Leigh Waters and William Sobek

Texas Open juniors with Anna Leigh Waters and William Sobek

“In the first few tournaments, Wyatt would often be one of two or three juniors playing in the 19+ skill events. With each tournament we have seen more kids at each event. The Mansfield Summer Slam which was on September 7th had 6 junior players playing up in age 19+ by skill. The Texas Open is the only tournament in the mid-south to have enough kids to make junior brackets work.

“At the Texas Open, events were grouped by players 7-13 and 14-18 years old, a handful of which also played in 19+ age/skill events. The kids came from Texas and Oklahoma areas. Skill ranged from novice play to a 4.0 skill level. All of the kids have a family member who introduced them to the sport and are very passionate about it. They had a really good time and thought it was cool the mixed open events were happening on the same day as the junior events. The kids’ games were right next to pro players.

“One thing that was really great was the pro players (Joey Farrias, Lucy Kovalova & Matt Wright, Michella & Daniel DeLaRosa, to note a few) would stop to watch the kids and do a quick meet and greet. Some of the pro players even refereed junior games. Two I can think of were Gigi LeMasters and Anna Leigh Waters.

“There were also 2 junior pro players, Anna Leigh Waters & William Sobek, who competed at the pro open level.  All the juniors lined up to watch at least one of their games.”

Junior girls' doubles winners

Junior girls’ doubles winners (Gold: Sophia Irwin & Madi Warden, silver: Michaela McElroy & Caitlyn Chia, bronze: Natasha Cole & Katelyn Click)

Ashley mentioned something many junior players would like to see moving forward is divisions separated by skill rather than age.

“The Texas Open (and all other USAPA-sanctioned tournaments) divide juniors by age. We have not yet attended a junior tournament in the US that has enough kids to divide by age and then further divide by skill. What I have seen is that ability doesn’t discriminate by age. In an event with kids ages 7-13 or 13-18 in the Texas Open, we had novices competing with advanced players. All the kids and their families unanimously agreed they would have healthier competition if they played in events by skill.”

It’s also exciting to note that a junior was chosen as the recipient of the Lone Star Award at the Texas Open, a recognition given to someone who has used pickleball to help build up their community and improve people’s health. The winner this year was Wyatt Stone, Ashley’s son.

“Wyatt completed the IPTPA level II certification in less than a month with the desire to teach as many kids pickleball as he could reach. He went to Oklahoma twice to volunteer with youth camps, ran the Andy Roddick Pickleball Camp in Austin, hosted monthly kids’ camps over the summer and set up (with the parks department) a free weekly pickleball clinic for kids that he will teach.

Junior boys' doubles 1-12 (Gold: Ralph Chiu & Hollis Willson Silver: Aden Weimer & Zeus Andre Celedonio Bronze: Grant Wilton & Ryan Wilton) and Junior Boys Doubles 13-18 Gold: Isaiah McAllister & Joshua McAllister Silver: E Ramm & Drew Warren Bronze: Dayton Bartman & Wyatt McAllister

Junior boys’ doubles 1-12 (Gold: Ralph Chiu & Hollis Willson, silver: Aden Weimer & Zeus Andre Celedonio, bronze: Grant Wilton & Ryan Wilton) and Junior boys’ doubles 13-18 (Gold: Isaiah McAllister & Joshua McAllister, silver: E Ramm & Drew Warren, bronze: Dayton Bartman & Wyatt McAllister)

“The September classes have been booked up since last month. Wyatt volunteers working with his mentor May Laz at clinics, camps, challenges and tournaments on a weekly basis. He is also the USAPA Junior Pickleball Facebook editor and has more than organically tripled the followers since he took it over. He runs the Pickleball Facebook Junior forum and San Antonio IH35 to Austin Pickleball meetup where he organizes free competitive play.

“Wyatt is 14-years-old and had only been playing a a couple of weeks when he asked to go to the Texas Open as a spectator. After spending the weekend at the Texas Open, Wyatt wanted to learn how to play like the pros. Wyatt played in his first tournament in January, the Oklahoma State Games, and took 3 gold medals.

“He has been competing ever since, playing in 9 tournaments with 16 medals. He took a gold medal at the MT Regionals, earning a spot at Nationals which he will attend in November. He became IPTPA certified in June and added teaching to his rigorous training schedule.

Wyatt Stone receiving the Lone Star Award

Wyatt Stone receiving the Lone Star Award

“Wyatt did not have racket or paddle experience prior to playing pickleball and has come up through the ranks by working hard and earning his place training with local 5.0 players. He publishes a blog on his website with articles relevant to junior players and their families: WyattStonePickleballJunior.com

“Wyatt joined the Pickleball Rocks Team this past summer and accepted the nomination to lead the USAPA junior program as the USAPA National Junior Coordinator.

“He is thankful every day that he steps on the court and loves to see other kids getting involved in recreational and competitive pickleball.”

Why You Should Try a Heavy Paddle Even If You’ve Dismissed Them Before

Heavy pickleball paddles are often presumed to fall under the sole domain of power players. You have more heft in your hand, so you can slam, smash and drive kill shots down the court all day.

This scenario is a reality for some players, but to shoehorn heavy paddles into such a niche role is a disservice to their versatility. You may even be missing out on the excellent benefits these paddles can provide if you’ve been presuming their weight is too much to handle.

Hilary Marold is one example of a pro player who bucks the stereotype of heavy paddles only being suitable for big and bulky athletes. She even believes that heavy paddles are particularly helpful to senior players, a demographic which is often advised to steer clear of anything that could strain their joints.

Hilary is known as the “Queen of the Courts” due to her extensive high-profile background in racquet sports. This includes multiple gold medals and hall of fame inductions within tennis, platform tennis, badminton, racquetball, pickleball and more, so it’s worth hearing her out!

In the video below you can listen to Hilary explain why she enjoys using the Paddletek Phoenix Ultra II, which weighs in at 10 – 10.5 oz.

Hilary explains that paradoxically, heavy paddles often stress the body less than lightweight options. Their larger mass provides more speed and pop with less work from the player.

In an extreme example, think of whether it would be easier to return a ball with a banana leaf or a baseball bat. While the leaf is obviously faster and easier to wield, the bat adds far more of its own power during acceleration rather than relying on a player to throw all of their strength behind it.

She notes that heavier paddles provide better defense since their weight defuses the power behind slams. The paddle won’t vibrate or churn as much in the hand, allowing for an easier response.

For those who play outdoors, a heavy paddle will also offer more support when counteracting wind during a difficult serve or return.

If you experience sore wrists or arms during play, we believe it’s at least worth trying a heavier option to see if it can alleviate some of the tension that can result from using a light paddle. You might be surprised by the results! (Remember our 30-day test drive policy allows you to try equipment worry-free.)

If you’ve tried heavy paddles before to no avail, be aware that a paddle’s weight distribution greatly effects how it feels in the hand. Paddles that are head-heavy, those which focus most of their weight near the top of the face, often feel right at home in the hands of former (and current) tennis players. However, they might feel draining and awkward to someone who doesn’t want to battle against gravity during games.

Thankfully, there are options on both ends of the spectrum whether you want to try a paddle with a balanced weight distribution or something more specialized. If you love your current paddle but think there might be something to the weight debate, you can also give lead tape a shot and cheaply add more strength to equipment you already own.

For those wanting to test something new, the following are great options in the heavy paddle category:

Paddles with a Balanced Feel

Phoenix Ultra II – Up to 10.6 oz
Z5 Composite – Up to 9.2 oz
Vertex – Up to 8.9 oz
Phoenix Pro PTK – Up to 8.8 oz
Bantam EX-L – Up to 8.8 oz
Bantam EX-L Pro – Up to 8.8 oz
Wilson Tour Pro – Up to 8.7 oz

Paddles with a Head-Heavy Feel

Maverick (Standard) – Up to 8.3 oz
Saber Pro – Up to 8.4 oz
Invikta X5 – Up to 8.4 oz
Engage Poach Extreme – Up to 8.3 oz
Head Radical XL (Red) – Up to 8.3 oz

Paddles that Allow You to Choose a Heavy Weight

Prince Pro Series – Up to 8.3 oz standard weight
Selkirk Amped Series – Up to 8.4 oz standard weight

What are your thoughts on heavier paddles, and do you feel they’ve helped improve your game? Which heavy paddle do you think has the best feel?

Avoiding Pop-Ups in Pickleball

The dreaded pop-up can be tough to control even when you feel like you’re doing everything right. A shot flies towards you and you angle your paddle away from your opponent, but it still soars into the air so they can return an easy slam. How do you prevent this? Pickleball Kitchen provides some helpful tips.

In the following video Barrett Kincheloe describes 3 methods you can use to avoid popping pickleballs into the air so you won’t have to defend against a smash. For a quick overview, this advice includes:

Soft Hands

While everyone loves to have cushy, smooth skin, in this instance having “soft hands” refers to how you grip your paddle. If you have a tendency to use a death grip, then the tension in your muscles will follow through to your paddle and cause balls to ricochet off the surface.

Instead of grasping the handle so firmly, try to focus on holding the paddle only between your index finger and thumb. The remaining three fingers on the grip (middle, ring and pinkie) should only loosely be touching it. The side of the grip should be between the “v” of your index finger and thumb’s webbing.

This will feel a little odd and loose at first, and you may hit some balls into the net. But this softer grip is ideal for defusing the power coming from a fast shot and will result in it gently returning to your opponent, often in the kitchen.

Maintain Pace

It’s understandable that if you see a pickleball whizzing towards you, you may want to return it with an equal amount of punch. Yet this is a trap!

If you take shots quickly and at speed there’s a higher chance your paddle will be jostled upwards in the process, resulting in a pop-up. Even worse, you could return the ball with such power that it goes out of the court boundaries entirely, meaning you won’t even get a chance to play out the rest of the point.

Instead of swinging out of control, keep your paddle in a neutral “blocking” position with the face aiming towards your opponent and maintain the above-mentioned soft grip. The ball will lose speed and play can return to a calmer pace. Remember too that pickleballs will have less speed on them when they’ve popped up from the ground versus being taken out of the air.

Watch Spin

Spin isn’t only useful for changing the path of pickleballs as they’re traveling through the air or once they’ve hit the ground; it also affects how they come back off of paddles. Topspin in particular can be dangerous to handle since its motion naturally causes pickleballs to fly upwards when you return them.

To counteract this, Barrett recommends angling your paddle slightly toward the ground and aiming lower than you would normally. This will reduce the spin’s effectiveness and keep the ball closer to the net. If you’re unsure when balls have spin on them, an easy thing to look for is if they appear solid in the air as opposed to being able to see their holes.

Check out the full video for more information about all of these steps and examples of their effects in motion: